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Become a Partner. Using space to help life on Earth Our Approach. They suggested that the correlation is due to the orbits of these objects avoiding close approaches to a massive planet by passing above or below its orbit.
A article by Carlos and Raul de la Fuente Marcos noted that distribution of the distances to the ascending nodes of the eTNOs, and those of centaurs and comets with large semi-major axes, may be bimodal.
The clustering of the orbits of eTNOs and raising of their perihelia is reproduced in simulations that include Planet Nine. In simulations conducted by Batygin and Brown, swarms of scattered disk objects with semi-major axes up to AU that began with random orientations were sculpted into roughly collinear and coplanar groups of spatially confined orbits by a massive distant planet in a highly eccentric orbit.
This left most of the objects' perihelia pointed in similar directions and the objects' orbits with similar tilts.
Many of these objects entered high-perihelion orbits like Sedna and, unexpectedly, some entered perpendicular orbits that Batygin and Brown later noticed had been previously observed.
In their original analysis Batygin and Brown found that the distribution of the orbits of the first six eTNOs was best reproduced in simulations using a 10 Earth mass [E] planet in the following orbit: [F].
Objects with semi-major axis greater than AU are strongly anti-aligned with Planet Nine, with perihelia opposite Planet Nine's perihelion.
Objects with semi-major axes between AU and AU are weakly aligned with Planet Nine, with perihelia in the same direction as Planet Nine's perihelion.
Little effect is found on objects with semi-major axes less than AU. These objects have yet to be observed. These orbits yield varied results.
Batygin and Brown found that orbits of the eTNOs were more likely to have similar tilts if Planet Nine had a higher inclination, but anti-alignment also decreased.
The discovery of additional distant Solar System objects would allow astronomers to make more accurate predictions about the orbit of the hypothesized planet.
These may also provide further support for, or refutation of, the Planet Nine hypothesis. Simulations that included the migration of giant planets resulted in a weaker alignment of the eTNOs orbits.
The latter would result in the sednoids' orbits being oriented opposite most of the other eTNOs.
Planet Nine modifies the orbits of eTNOs via a combination of effects. On very long timescales Planet Nine exerts a torque on the orbits of the eTNOs that varies with the alignment of their orbits with Planet Nine's.
The resulting exchanges of angular momentum cause the perihelia to rise, placing them in Sedna-like orbits, and later fall, returning them to their original orbits after several hundred million years.
The motion of their directions of perihelion also reverses when their eccentricities are small, keeping the objects anti-aligned, see blue curves on diagram, or aligned, red curves.
On shorter timescales mean-motion resonances with Planet Nine provides phase protection, which stabilizes their orbits by slightly altering the objects' semi-major axes, keeping their orbits synchronized with Planet Nine's and preventing close approaches.
The gravity of Neptune and the other giant planets, and the inclination of Planet Nine's orbit, weaken this protection.
This results in a chaotic variation of semi-major axes as objects hop between resonances, including high-order resonances such as , on million-year timescales.
At large semi-major axes the Laplace plane is warped toward the plane of Planet Nine's orbit.
This causes orbital poles of the eTNOs on average to be tilted toward one side and their longitudes of ascending nodes to be clustered.
Planet Nine can deliver eTNOs into orbits roughly perpendicular to the ecliptic. The resonance causes their eccentricities and inclinations to increase, delivering the eTNOs into perpendicular orbits with low perihelia where they are more readily observed.
The eTNOs then evolve into retrograde orbits with lower eccentricities, after which they pass through a second phase of high eccentricity perpendicular orbits, before returning to low eccentricity and inclination orbits.
Unlike the Kozai mechanism this resonance causes objects to reach their maximum eccentricities when in nearly perpendicular orbits.
A population of high-inclination TNOs with semi-major axes less than AU may be generated by the combined effects of Planet Nine and the other giant planets.
The eTNOs that enter perpendicular orbits have perihelia low enough for their orbits to intersect those of Neptune or the other giant planets.
An encounter with one of these planets can lower an eTNO's semi-major axis to below AU, where the object's orbits is no longer controlled by Planet Nine, leaving it in an orbit like KV The predicted orbital distribution of the longest lived of these objects is nonuniform.
Planet Nine would alter the source regions and the inclination distribution of comets. In simulations of the migration of the giant planets described by the Nice model fewer objects are captured in the Oort cloud when Planet Nine is included.
Other objects would be captured in a cloud of objects dynamically controlled by Planet Nine. If Planet Nine exists these would make up roughly one third of the Halley-type comets.
Interactions with Planet Nine would also increase the inclinations of the scattered disk objects that cross its orbit. This could result in more with moderate inclinations of 15—30 degrees than are observed.
In February , the total of eTNOs that fit the original hypothesis of having semi-major axis of over AU had increased to 14 objects.
Based on the new objects, the updated orbital parameters of hypothesized Planet Nine were: . Batygin was cautious in interpreting the results of the simulation developed for his and Brown's research article, saying, "Until Planet Nine is caught on camera it does not count as being real.
All we have now is an echo. The Planet Nine hypothesis is supported by several astronomers and academics.
Astronomer Renu Malhotra remains agnostic about Planet Nine, but noted that she and her colleagues have found that the orbits of eTNOs seem tilted in a way that is difficult to otherwise explain.
Other authorities have varying degrees of skepticism. American astrophysicist Ethan Siegel , who previously speculated that planets may have been ejected from the Solar System during an early dynamical instability, is skeptical of the existence of an undiscovered planet in the Solar System.
She went further to explain the phenomenon of these extreme orbits could be due to gravitational occultation from Neptune when it migrated outwards earlier in the Solar System's history.
However, they also noted that the sky coverage and number of objects found were insufficient to show that there was no Planet Nine.
He found that after observation biases were accounted for, the clustering of longitudes of perihelion of 10 known eTNOs would be observed only 1.
When combined with the odds of the observed clustering of the arguments of perihelion, the probability was 0.
Simulations of 15 known objects evolving under the influence of Planet Nine also revealed differences from observations.
Their simulations also showed that the perihelia of the eTNOs rose and fell smoothly, leaving many with perihelion distances between 50 AU and 70 AU where none had been observed, and predicted that there would be many other unobserved objects.
Many of the objects were also ejected from the Solar System after encountering the other giant planets. The large unobserved populations and the loss of many objects led Shankman et al.
Ann-Marie Madigan and Michael McCourt postulate that an inclination instability in a distant massive belt is responsible for the alignment of the arguments of perihelion of the eTNOs.
The self-gravity of this disk would cause its spontaneous organization, increasing the inclinations of the objects and aligning the arguments of perihelion, forming it into a cone above or below the original plane.
Instead, the simulation produced a rapid precession of the objects' orbits and most of the objects were ejected on too short of a timescale for an inclination instability to occur.
Antranik Sefilian and Jihad Touma propose that a massive disk of moderately eccentric TNOs is responsible for the clustering of the longitudes of perihelion of the eTNOs.
This disk would contain 10 Earth-mass of TNOs with aligned orbits and eccentricities that increased with their semimajor axes ranging from zero to 0.
The gravitational effects of the disk would offset the forward precession driven by the giant planets so that the orbital orientations of its individual objects are maintained.
The orbits of objects with high eccentricities, such as the observed eTNOs, would be stable and have roughly fixed orientations, or longitudes of perihelion, if their orbits were anti-aligned with this disk.
The Planet Nine hypothesis includes a set of predictions about the mass and orbit of the planet. An alternative theory predicts a planet with different orbital parameters.
The eccentricity is limited in this case by the requirement that close approaches of GB to the planet be avoided. Unlike Batygin and Brown, Malhotra, Volk and Wang do not specify that most of the distant detached objects would have orbits anti-aligned with the massive planet.
These simulations showed the basic idea of how a single large planet can shepherd the smaller TNOs into similar types of orbits.
They were basic proof of concept simulations that did not obtain a unique orbit for the planet as they state there are many possible orbital configurations the planet could have.
Their work is very similar to how Alexis Bouvard noticed Uranus' motion was peculiar and suggested that it was likely gravitational forces from an unknown 8th planet, which led to the discovery of Neptune.
Aarseth confirmed that the observed alignment of the arguments of perihelion could not be due to observational bias. Due to its extreme distance from the Sun, Planet Nine would reflect little sunlight, potentially evading telescope sightings.
At aphelion, the largest telescopes would be required, but if the planet is currently located in between, many observatories could spot Planet Nine.
A study estimated that Planet Nine, if it exists, may be smaller and closer than originally thought. The search of databases of stellar objects by Batygin and Brown has already excluded much of the sky along Planet Nine's predicted orbit.
The remaining regions include the direction of its aphelion, where it would be too faint to be spotted by these surveys, and near the plane of the Milky Way , where it would be difficult to distinguish from the numerous stars.
Other researchers have been conducting searches of existing data. David Gerdes, who helped develop the camera used in the Dark Energy Survey , claims that software designed to identify distant Solar System objects such as UZ could find Planet Nine if it was imaged as part of that survey, which covered a quarter of the southern sky.
Using a supercomputer they will offset the images to account for the calculated motion of Planet Nine, allowing many faint images of a faint moving object to be combined to produce a brighter image.
This search covered regions of the sky away from the galactic plane at the "W1" wavelength the 3. Because the planet is predicted to be visible in the Northern Hemisphere , the primary search is expected to be carried out using the Subaru Telescope , which has both an aperture large enough to see faint objects and a wide field of view to shorten the search.
In late April and Early May Scott Lawrence proposed the latter method for finding it as multiple spacecraft would have advantages that land-based telescopes don't have.
Although a distant planet such as Planet Nine would reflect little light, due to its large mass it would still be radiating the heat from its formation as it cools.
The project will also search for substellar objects like brown dwarfs in the neighborhood of the Solar System. By looking for moving objects in the animations, citizen scientists might find Planet Nine.
In April ,  using data from the SkyMapper telescope at Siding Spring Observatory , citizen scientists on the Zooniverse platform reported four candidates for Planet Nine.
These candidates will be followed up on by astronomers to determine their viability. Precise observations of Saturn's orbit using data from Cassini suggest that Planet Nine could not be in certain sections of its proposed orbit because its gravity would cause a noticeable effect on Saturn's position.
This data neither proves nor disproves that Planet Nine exists. The analysis, using Batygin and Brown's orbital parameters for Planet Nine, suggests that the lack of perturbations to Saturn's orbit is best explained if Planet Nine is located at a true anomaly of A later analysis of Cassini data by astrophysicists Matthew Holman and Matthew Payne tightened the constraints on possible locations of Planet Nine.
Holman and Payne developed a more efficient model that allowed them to explore a broader range of parameters than the previous analysis.
The parameters identified using this technique to analyze the Cassini data was then intersected with Batygin and Brown's dynamical constraints on Planet Nine's orbit.
William Folkner, a planetary scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory JPL , has stated that the Cassini spacecraft is not experiencing unexplained deviations in its orbit around Saturn.
An undiscovered planet would affect the orbit of Saturn, not Cassini. This could produce a signature in the measurements of Cassini , but JPL has seen no unexplained signatures in Cassini data.
An analysis in of Pluto's orbit by Holman and Payne found perturbations much larger than predicted by Batygin and Brown's proposed orbit for Planet Nine.
An analysis of the orbits of comets with nearly parabolic orbits identifies five new comets with hyperbolic orbits that approach the nominal orbit of Planet Nine described in Batygin and Brown's initial article.
Malena Rice and Gregory Laughlin have proposed that a network of telescopes be built to detect occultations by Jupiter Trojans. The timing of these occultations would provide precise astrometry of these objects enabling their orbits to be monitored for variations due to the tide from Planet Nine.
An analysis by Sarah Millholland and Gregory Laughlin identified a pattern of commensurabilities ratios between orbital periods of pairs of objects consistent with both being in resonance with another object of the eTNOs.
Carlos and Raul de la Fuente Marcos also note commensurabilities among the known eTNOs similar to that of the Kuiper belt, where accidental commensurabilities occur due to objects in resonances with Neptune.
These objects would be in resonance and anti-aligned with Planet Nine if it had a semi-major axis of AU, below the range proposed by Batygin and Brown.
Alternatively, they could be in resonance with Planet Nine, but have orbital orientations that circulate instead of being confined by Planet Nine if it had a semi-major axis of AU.
A later analysis by Elizabeth Bailey, Michael Brown and Konstantin Batygin found that if Planet Nine is in an eccentric and inclined orbit the capture of many of the eTNOs in higher order resonances and their chaotic transfer between resonances prevent the identification of Planet Nine's semi-major axis using current observations.
Planet Nine does not have an official name and will not receive one unless its existence is confirmed via imaging.
Only two planets, Uranus and Neptune, have been discovered in our solar system during recorded history.
However, many minor planets , including dwarf planets such as Pluto, asteroids , and comets have been discovered and named. Consequently, there is a well-established process for naming newly discovered solar system objects.
If Planet Nine is observed, the International Astronomical Union will certify a name, with priority usually given to a name proposed by its discoverers.
In their original article, Batygin and Brown simply referred to the object as "perturber",  and only in later press releases did they use "Planet Nine".
Brown has stated: "We actually call it Phattie [Q] when we're just talking to each other. In , an article titled Planet Nine from Outer Space about the hypothesized planet in the outer region of the Solar System was published in Scientific American.
Persephone , the wife of the deity Pluto, had been a popular name commonly used in science fiction for a planet beyond Neptune see Fictional planets of the Solar System.
However, it is unlikely that Planet Nine or any other conjectured planet beyond Neptune will be given the name Persephone once its existence is confirmed, as it is already the name for asteroid Persephone.
In , planetary scientist Alan Stern objected to the name Planet Nine , saying, "It is an effort to erase Clyde Tombaugh 's legacy and it's frankly insulting", suggesting the name Planet X until its discovery.
Our prediction is not related to this prediction. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the hypothetical planet first suggested in For other uses, see Ninth planet disambiguation.
Not to be confused with the hypothetical Planet X first proposed in by Percival Lowell. Hypothetical large planet in the far outer Solar System.
Artist's impression of Planet Nine eclipsing the central Milky Way, with the Sun in the distance; Neptune's orbit is shown as a small ellipse around the Sun See labelled version.
Semi-major axis. Apparent magnitude. See also: Nice model , Five-planet Nice model , and Planetary migration. The extreme trans-Neptunian object orbits.
Six original and eight additional eTNO objects orbits with current positions near their perihelion in purple, with hypothetical Planet Nine orbit in green.
Main article: Effects of Planet Nine on trans-Neptunian objects. See also: Citizen science. Solar System portal.
If M were equal to 0. If M were equal to 1 Earth mass, then long-lived apsidally anti-aligned orbits would indeed occur, but removal of unstable orbits would happen on a much longer timescale than the current evolution of the Solar System.
Hence, even though they would show preference for a particular apsidal direction, they would not exhibit true confinement like the data.
They also note that M greater than 10 Earth mass would imply a longer semi-major axis. Hence they estimate that the mass of the object is likely in the range of 5 to 15 Earth mass.
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