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Volume 43, Number 2. Previous Article Next Article. Research Article April 01, Liferovich ; Ruslan P. Google Scholar.

Roger H. Mitchell Roger H. The Canadian Mineralogist 43 2 : — Article history received:. Ref country code : IT. The strip or sheet of the invention is used for any application requiring an economic compromise in ductility sheet and welds , hot resistance and corrosion resistance, for example in automobile exhaust manifolds.

The invention relates to the field of rolled products of stainless ferritic steel, and more particularly that of exhaust systems.

The manufacture and maintenance in service of exhaust systems, for example automobile exhaust manifolds and tubes, has a number of requirements which are difficult to meet simultaneously and economically:.

Ferritic stainless grades are superior to austenitic grades because of their coefficient of thermal expansion.

US-A relates to a ferritic stainless steel of composition: C 0. This document gives several indications on the role of Zr and Nb:.

In the communication presented to the Congress of the S. The materials having contents of uncombined Nb of 0.

Two documents indicate the influence of an addition of A1. The subject of the invention is a sheet or strip of ferritic stainless steel, usually in the annealed state, the final annealing operation then being most often followed by a finishing and work hardening pass or "skin- pass "producing an elongation of less than 1 X, and intended in particular for the manufacture of manifolds and exhaust tubes.

The free Zr is therefore limited to 0. At this content at most equal to 0. The free or non-combined Nb is between 0.

As for the poor ductility of the welds reported by US-A-4,,, when Nb in solid solution that is to say free or not combined is in content greater than 0.

The total content of A1 assayed essentially corresponds to Al in solid solution. Indeed, Zr has more affinity than Al for oxygen and there is little residual oxygen in the metal, so that there can be only very little Al in the form of alumina.

Furthermore, the affinities of Zr and Nb for nitrogen and the greater affinity of Al for oxygen than for nitrogen means that aluminum nitride AIN does not form.

The result; confirmed qualitatively by micrographic examinations, is that A1 is in solid solution with the exception of a content at most equal to 0.

With a small addition of 0. The Al content is limited to 0. This dross effect is significant at the level of 0.

We sought to explain this surprising improvement in the resistance to oxidation produced by such low aluminum contents.

This anchoring mechanism is quite different from the mechanism for forming an alumina layer which is specific to stainless ferritic grades with an Al content greater than 0.

It can therefore be concluded that, in the case of the sheets of the invention with Zr-Nb-Al, Al appears to intervene in conjunction with Nb to produce an anchoring favorable to the resistance of the oxidized layer and thus improve the resistance to corrosion.

The constituent elements of the tale or strip of the invention are taken individually or as a whole in the following preferential content ranges:.

Zr is then always in sufficient quantity for stabilization in the restricted sense, that is to say for the trapping of N and C in the form of nitrides and carbides.

Al can be included in increasingly narrow ranges, industrially achievable and representing an optimal compromise between resistance to hot oxidation and resistance to pitting corrosion.

The invention also relates to the method of manufacturing a sheet or strip of ferritic stainless steel, in which, as is known, the hot rolled strip is annealed with a thickness of between 2.

The test results which will follow, the figures and the tables which accompany them, will make it possible to illustrate and comment on the various aspects of the invention.

The total of the other impurities is thus clearly less than 0. The main stages of the transformation into 1 mm thick sheets were as follows:.

The sheets according to the invention, with an uncombined Nb content of between 0. On these sheets, full sheet welds were made melting lines with a back width of 2 mm in automatic IIG on a strip with a groove width of 10 mm, under pure argon, with 12V A and at a speed of 0.

The results are shown in Table 6 below, "B" meaning "good" and "M" meaning "bad" crack or crack. There are 4 tests per condition.

The samples used come from 3 castings of 25 kg transformed according to the process indicated in connection with test series No.

The analyzes of the 3 castings, at 0. Each oxidation test relates to 3 test pieces of the same type, with an additional test piece for metallographic examinations.

The hot air oxidation tests have a unit duration of 50 h, the air renewal is ensured by "chimney effect" by means of a 0 6 mm hole made in the lower part of the oven.

The results on the 3 test pieces of each test are well grouped in the case of continuous oxidation, and we have therefore given in this case only one result, average of the 3 individual results.

This series of tests No. In this series, in addition to test pieces from the 3 previous flows, we tested test pieces of 2 flows with Nb of respective A1 contents of 0.

The results are given in Table 9 and in FIG. It can be seen that the representative points of the two flows according to the invention are correctly placed on the weight loss curve plotted for the Nb flows.

The weight losses corresponding to the Al content limits of the steels of the invention are shown in Table I description of the invention.

The Al contents are plotted on the graph in FIG. In these alternating oxidation or cyclic oxidation tests, the test pieces prepared as described above are subjected to cycles each comprising: rapid heating, holding for 10 min at the test temperature, then air cooling and maintenance at room temperature or close to total duration 10 min.

The duration of a test is h during which cycles are carried out giving an overall maintenance at the test temperature of 50 h.

The tests relate both to full-sheet test pieces and to test pieces containing welds, the latter being carried out as indicated with regard to the series of tests No.

The results obtained appear in Table 10 and in Figure 5. The points representative of the minima and maxima of each group of 3 results are plotted in Figure 5.

There are two families of results:. In this series of tests, alternating or cyclic oxidation tests were carried out for a total duration of h, h and h with the cycles defined in test series No.

The tests focused on the flows No. The results obtained, already mentioned in the description of the invention, are reported in Table 11 and in FIG.

Flow no. This behavior of the test pieces of casting No. Compared with the behavior of the specimens from flows and , it seems to mean that the simultaneous presence of Zr and Nb also play a role.

The sheets of the invention thus have numerous advantages responding to the problem posed:.

The strips or sheets of the invention, usually in the annealed state and in a thickness of 0. Application to exhaust systems is particularly typical.

Sheet or strip according to claim 2, characterized in that it contains X th weight : Nb 0.

Sheet or strip according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that it is in the annealed state 0. A method of manufacturing a sheet or strip, the composition of which conforms to any one of claims 1 to 3, in which the hot-rolled strip of thickness between 2.

USA en. EPB1 en. JPSA en. ATT en. AUB2 en. BRA en. CAC en. DED1 en. DKA en. ESB3 en. FRB1 en.

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Ave, CГѓВ©ZГѓВЎR! Video

Previous Article Next Article. Research Article April 01, Liferovich ; Ruslan P. Google Scholar. Roger H. Mitchell Roger H.

The Canadian Mineralogist 43 2 : — Article history received:. Abstract We describe titanite with unusually high contents of Na, Nb, and Zr from a hydrothermal natrolite-rich vein cutting kalsilite—nepheline syenite at Mount Rasvumchorr, Khibina peralkaline complex, in the Kola Alkaline Province, Russia.

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Close Modal. Each oxidation test relates to 3 test pieces of the same type, with an additional test piece for metallographic examinations.

The hot air oxidation tests have a unit duration of 50 h, the air renewal is ensured by "chimney effect" by means of a 0 6 mm hole made in the lower part of the oven.

The results on the 3 test pieces of each test are well grouped in the case of continuous oxidation, and we have therefore given in this case only one result, average of the 3 individual results.

This series of tests No. In this series, in addition to test pieces from the 3 previous flows, we tested test pieces of 2 flows with Nb of respective A1 contents of 0.

The results are given in Table 9 and in FIG. It can be seen that the representative points of the two flows according to the invention are correctly placed on the weight loss curve plotted for the Nb flows.

The weight losses corresponding to the Al content limits of the steels of the invention are shown in Table I description of the invention.

The Al contents are plotted on the graph in FIG. In these alternating oxidation or cyclic oxidation tests, the test pieces prepared as described above are subjected to cycles each comprising: rapid heating, holding for 10 min at the test temperature, then air cooling and maintenance at room temperature or close to total duration 10 min.

The duration of a test is h during which cycles are carried out giving an overall maintenance at the test temperature of 50 h.

The tests relate both to full-sheet test pieces and to test pieces containing welds, the latter being carried out as indicated with regard to the series of tests No.

The results obtained appear in Table 10 and in Figure 5. The points representative of the minima and maxima of each group of 3 results are plotted in Figure 5.

There are two families of results:. In this series of tests, alternating or cyclic oxidation tests were carried out for a total duration of h, h and h with the cycles defined in test series No.

The tests focused on the flows No. The results obtained, already mentioned in the description of the invention, are reported in Table 11 and in FIG.

Flow no. This behavior of the test pieces of casting No. Compared with the behavior of the specimens from flows and , it seems to mean that the simultaneous presence of Zr and Nb also play a role.

The sheets of the invention thus have numerous advantages responding to the problem posed:. The strips or sheets of the invention, usually in the annealed state and in a thickness of 0.

Application to exhaust systems is particularly typical. Sheet or strip according to claim 2, characterized in that it contains X th weight : Nb 0.

Sheet or strip according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that it is in the annealed state 0. A method of manufacturing a sheet or strip, the composition of which conforms to any one of claims 1 to 3, in which the hot-rolled strip of thickness between 2.

USA en. EPB1 en. JPSA en. ATT en. AUB2 en. BRA en. CAC en. DED1 en. DKA en. ESB3 en. FRB1 en. NOC en. PTB en. ZAB en. Stainless steel sheet for exterior building constituent and method of making the same.

Stainless steel exhibiting excellent anticorrosion property for use in engine exhaust systems. Process for producing chromium-containing stainless steel strip with excellent toughness.

Welded corrosion-resistant ferritic stainless steel tubing having high resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and a cathodically protected heat exchanger containing the same.

Stainless steel for engine exhaust gas materials with excellent corrosion resistance. Ferrite heat-resistant stainless steel with excellent low-temperature toughness, weldability and heat resistance.

Heat resisting ferritic stainless steel excellent in low temperature toughness, weldability and heat resistance.

Ferrite stainless steel with excellent intergranular corrosion resistance, pipe forming property and high temperature strength.

Ferritic stainless steel with excellent high-temperature salt injury resistance and high-temperature strength. Ferritic stainless steel excellent in high-temperature oxidation resistance and scale adhesion.

Process for cold rolling-annealing-cold drawing a hot-rolled stainless steel strip. A ferritic stainless steel sheet good of workability and a manufacturing method thereof.

DET3 en. Columbium-stabilized high chromium ferritic stainless steels containing zirconium. USB1 en. USB2 en. NOL en.

NOD0 en. FRA1 en. PTA en. NOB en. DKD0 en. AUA en. EST3 en. KRB1 en. Austenitic stainless steel excellent in high temperature strength and corrosion resistance, heat resistant pressurized parts, and the manufacturing method thereof.

JPB2 en. CNB en. Ferritic stainless steel material and automotive exhaust gas path member with excellent thermal fatigue characteristics.

TWIB en. EPB9 en. Ferritic stainless-steel sheet with excellent corrosion resistance and process for producing the same.

Ferritic stainless steel sheet for water heater excellent in corrosion resistance at welded part and steel sheet toughness.

EPA1 en. Ref country code : FR Payment date : Year of fee payment :

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